Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor and the prognosis of advanced cases is still poor. Recently, there have been several reports suggesting the relationship between innate immunity and OS, but the detailed mechanism is unknown. We demonstrate the relationship between OS and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which is one of the most important factors in innate immunity. Methods: We established a syngenic mouse tumor model using C3H/HeN, C3H/HeJ mouse and a highly metastatic OS cell line, LM8. TLR4 activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was performed on both mice and its influence on the progression of OS was evaluated. We also performed CD8 + cells depletion to examine the influence on TLR4 activation effects. Results: Tumor volume of C3H/HeN mice was significantly smaller and overall survival of C3H/HeN mice was significantly longer than C3H/HeJ mice. We found more CD8+ cells infiltrating in lung metastases of C3H/HeN mice and depletion of CD8+ cells canceled the antitumor effects of LPS. Conclusion: TLR4 activation by LPS increased CD8+ cells infiltrating into lung metastases and suppressed OS progression in the mouse model. TLR4 activation may suppress the progression of OS via stimulating CD8+ cells and can be expected as a novel treatment for OS.
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