Objective - To assess the association between active and passive smoking and the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), a case-control study with 249 PD patients and 369 controls was carried out in Japan.Methods - Information on smoking was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age, sex, region of residence, educational level, and occupational exposure.Results - Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD [adjusted odds ratio = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.59]. Risk for former smokers was intermediate between the high risk for never smokers and the low risk for current smokers. Adjusted odds ratios for former and current smokers were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.32-0.82) and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.05-0.26), respectively. There was an inverse dose-response gradient with pack-years smoked. No significant association was detected for passive smoking exposure.Conclusion - Our results appear to confirm data from previous epidemiological studies.
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