A 75-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed a traumatic intracranial hemorrhage during warfarin treatment. The administration of warfarin was stopped and rivaroxaban therapy, a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC), was started. Immediately, his platelet count decreased to 3.7×104/μL. The platelet count recovered rapidly after cessation of rivaroxaban administration. Development of thrombocytopenia and its rapid recovery was observed again after another administration, and subsequent cessation, of the drug. A diagnosis of rivaroxaban-induced thrombocytopenia was made. The incidence of thrombocytopenia due to NOACs is rare. Careful attention to thrombocytopenia, which is associated with a higher risk for life-threatening bleeding, is therefore necessary during treatment with NOACs.
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