Modeling of friction force is cumbersome because of its discontinuity at zero velocity. This paper presents a set of discrete-time friction models for the purpose of haptic rendering and virtual environment construction. These models allow friction to be treated as an admittance-type or impedance-type element of a virtual environment. They are derived from implicit Euler integration of Coulomb-like discontinuous friction and linear mass-spring-damper dynamics, and have closed-form expressions. They include rate-dependent friction laws, and their extension to multidimensional cases is easy in most practical cases. The validity of the models is demonstrated through numerical examples and implementation experiments.
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- コンピュータ サイエンスの応用