Background: Deposition of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is frequently found in the peritoneum of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Angiogenesis is also observed in the peritoneum. However, the clinical significance of AGEs and angiogenesis in the peritoneum is not fully understood. We evaluated the maturation of capillary vessels and investigated whether AGEs are associated with angiogenesis and peritoneal function in the peritoneal membrane. Methods: Peritoneum obtained when PD catheters were removed from 61 patients with PD was analyzed. The peritoneum was immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD34 (for endothelial cells), anti-alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) (for pericytes), and anti-AGE antibodies. We defined CD34-positive and αSMA-negative vessels as immature capillary vessels in peritoneal membranes using serial sections. We evaluated the associations between vessel density, peritoneal function (dialysate-to-plasma ratio for creatinine (D/P creatinine)), and the degree of AGE deposition. Results: AGE accumulation in the interstitium was positively associated with the duration of PD (p < 0.01). AGE accumulation in the interstitium and vascular wall was positively correlated with the use of acidic solution (p < 0.05) and the maximum value of D/P creatinine (p < 0.05). AGE accumulation in the vascular wall was significantly associated with immature capillary density (CD34+/αSMA−) in the peritoneum (p < 0.01). Vessel density was not significantly correlated with the last measurement of D/P creatinine (p = 0.126, r = 0.202), However, immature capillary density was positively correlated with the last measurement of D/P creatinine (p < 0.05, r = 0.278). Conclusions: AGE accumulation is significantly associated with immature angiogenesis and peritoneal dysfunction in patients undergoing PD.
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