Chronic Kiss1 administration strongly promotes gonadal development in immature chub mackerel (cm) (Scomber japonicus). Here, we performed an Alanine scanning (Ala-scanning) of Kiss1 to determine its key residues. Additionally, we examined functional peptides from 16 Scombridae species to develop maturation-inducing super-analogs that can be used universally in Scombridae species. In the Ala-scanning of Kiss1-15 (QDMSSYNFNSFGLRY), substitution of Gln1 and Asp2 did not affect agonistic activity. This suggests that peptides could be downsized. Furthermore, it is possible that Phe8 can be substituted by unnatural amino acids that are difficult to degrade. In molecular cloning, only Scomber showed a 16-residue form as a putative mature peptide. The other genera, did not have a His residue at the N-terminal, which indicated that the functional peptide was 15 residues and the second and third residues from the N-terminal showed variation between interspecies. Next, we examined the binding affinity of various synthetic Kiss1 core peptides in Scombridae interspecies using an SRE-Luc reporter system. We cloned Kiss1 receptors (KissR1) from bluefin tuna (bft) (Thunnus orientalis) and Japanese Spanish mackerel (jsm) (Scomberomorus niphonius) for the first time. In binding affinity with cmKissR1, bftKissR1, and jsmKissR1, the species specificity of the second residue from the N-terminus in each ligand could be ignored, but the difference in the third residue strongly affected receptor binding. Scombridae species possess the same Kiss1 system but the structure of the functional peptide might be species-specific.
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