Endometrial gene expression is primarily regulated by the ovarian steroids and pregnancy recognition factors. This study was aimed to characterize differential expression genes (DEGs) in bovine endometrium together with the analysis of their promoter region. Bovine uteri at follicular stage (FS), luteal stage (LS), and implantation stage (IS) at Day 18 of pregnancy were collected. Total RNA extracted and prepared cDNA were then subjected to high-throughput sequencing. For promoter analysis, 1 kb upstream promoter region of each DEG was analyzed. The numbers of highly expressed DEGs were 496 and 597 at FS and LS, respectively. When compared the gene expression of IS with LS, 383 and 346 DEGs showed higher and lower expression at IS, respectively. It was also observed that 20–30 transcription factors (TFs) were included in each DEGs. In addition, promoter analyses estimated 150–160 TFs for each stage. DLX4 and interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) at FS, and IRF5, IRF9, STAT1, and STAT2 at IS were in common to DEGs and estimated TFs, respectively. This study highlighted potential molecular mechanisms controlling endometrial function during estrus cycle and IS, which will further guide to better understand the endometrial functions in future studies.
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