The fatigue behavior of high‐density polyethylene was studied by measuring the variation in the dynamic viscoelasticity during the fatigue process. Brittle failure was observed under the conditions of small imposed strain amplitude, low ambient temperature, and large heat transfer coefficient to the surroundings. Ductile failure was observed under the conditions of large imposed strain amplitude, high ambient temperature, and small heat transfer coefficient to the surroundings. In the case of brittle failure, absolute value of dynamic complex modulus, ∣E*∣, showed maximum and phase difference, δ, did minimum on approaching the point of failure. In the case of ductile failure, ∣E*∣ decreased and δ increased monotonously from the start of the fatigue testing. The effect of environmental conditions on fatigue behavior was elucidated in terms of the heat transfer coefficient to the surroundings. As both forced convection of air and water enlarge the heat transfer coefficient, temperature rise of the specimen hardly occured and brittle failure took place preferentially. The coefficient, ϰ, was introduced to express the ratio of the actual generated heat to the hysteresis loss. With increase of the magnitude of the strain amplitude, the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior appeared and ϰ became smaller. A positive correlation between ϰ and lifetime was found. As the heat generation rate does not strongly affect lifetime, it was concluded that the hysteresis loss with low efficiency of heat generation would contribute to the fatigue failure. The relationship between average hysteresis loss and lifetime was proposed. The total hysteresis loss up to fatigue failure is constant, being independent of ambient temperature and imposed strain amplitude. The cumulative damage theory of fatigue failure was proposed based on hysteresis loss.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Polymers and Plastics
- Materials Chemistry