Objective: Predictors of participation in breast cancer screening in recent years or the trend of participation rate by predictors over the years has not been investigated in Japan. In this study, we investigated predictors for participation in breast cancer screening and analyzed the trend of participation rate depending on the predictors using nationally representative survey data in Japan. Methods: The data of “Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions” in Japan from 2001 to 2013 were used. Participation in breast cancer screening was used as an outcome. Next, as explanatory variables, we used age group, marital status, living arrangements, educational level, household income, employment status, smoking status, regular outpatient visit status, and self-rated health status. Then, the participation rate for breast cancer screening was calculated for each of the factors over the years. In addition, multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the association between each factor and the participation rate using data from 2010 and 2013. Results: We found that non-married women, women with lower educational level, women with low household income, self-employed or unemployed women, smokers, and women with low self-rated health status were significantly less likely to participate in breast cancer screening. Conversely, the participation rate increased for all predictor groups from 2001 to 2013, and the increase in the participation rate for never-married women was particularly evident compared with the other marital statuses. However, significant differences in the participation rate for breast cancer screening existed depending on marital status, household income, employment status, and smoking status throughout the analyzed years. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that further recommendations for breast cancer screening are particularly needed among women of low socioeconomic status and those who are self-employed or unemployed to increase the participation rate in Japan.
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