Angiogenesis is a recent highlight in the medical field; the developmental process and pathological conditions for various diseases can be understood from the novel aspect of "angiogenesis". Many angiogenesis-related factors are involved in the development of vessels during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis), as well as the induction of new vessels in response to physiological or pathological stimuli. In particular, the appearance of hemangioblasts, precursor cells for vascular endothelial cells and blood cells, and blood islands are expected to play a "prelude" role in tubulogenesis. Gene knock out mice of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor, ephrin-B2, and angiopoietin-1 results in a failure of normal vessels production. Dormant factors derived from proteolytic cleavage of various physiological substrates are expected to balance a homeostasis of "angiogenic states" in the host. Furthermore, angiogenesis under various pathological conditions of malignant tumors, ocular diseases, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and other diseases is associated with complex angiogenesis networks, suggesting pleiotropic mechanisms for angiogenesis.
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