Background: The objective of the present analyses was to describe the baseline characteristics and treatment of the Japanese patients with HFrEF in THE PARALLEL-HF study. Methods and Results: Key demographic, clinical and laboratory findings, along with treatment, were reported and compared with patients enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF trial and other contemporary randomized clinical trials and registries of Japanese patients with HFrEF. In addition, the MAGGIC and EMPHASIS-HF risk scores were calculated. A total of 225 Japanese patients were randomized in PARALLEL-HF with a mean age of 67.9 years and the majority of the patients being male (85.8%) and in NYHA Class II (93.8%). Key baseline characteristics in PARALLEL-HF were generally comparable with PARADIGM-HF, and other contemporary clinical trials and registries of Japanese HFrEF patients. Patients enrolled in PARALLEL-HF were well treated with conventional evidence-based therapy at baseline (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, 62.7%/37.3%; β-blockers, 94.7%; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, 59.1%). Despite the evidence-based treatment and most patients being in NYHA Class II, these patients had a low LVEF (mean 28.1%) and were at high risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as assessed by the MAGGIC and EMPHASIS-HF risk scores. Conclusions: Overall, the patients in PARALLEL-HF were largely representative of contemporary ambulatory patients with HFrEF who are well treated with evidence-based therapies. PARALLEL-HF will determine whether sacubitril/valsartan provides similar improvements in clinical outcomes in Japanese HFrEF patients as observed in the PARADIGM-HF study.
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