Chytranthus macrobotrys and Radlkofera calodendron are two Sapindaceae characterized by a lack of phytochemical data. Both root barks from the two Sapindaceae species were processed by ethanol extraction followed by the isolation of their primary constituents by liquid chromatography. This process yielded four previously undescribed terpenoid glycosides together with eight known analogues. Extracts and isolated compounds from C. macrobotrys and R. calodendron were then screened for antimicrobial activity against fifteen phytopathogens. The biological screening also involved extracts and pure compounds from Blighia unijugata and Blighia welwitschii, two Sapindaceae previously studied by our group. Phytopathogens were chosen based on their economic impact on agriculture worldwide. The selection was composed primarily of fungal species including; Pyricularia oryzae, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Zymoseptoria tritici, Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Pythium spp., Trichoderma spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Furthermore, pure terpenoid glycosides were tested for the first time against wood-inhabiting phytopathogens such as; Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium minimum, Fomitiporia mediterranea, Eutype lata and Xylella fastidiosa. Raw extracts exhibited different levels of activity dependent on the organism. Some pure compounds, including 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin (α-hederin), 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin (macranthoside A) and 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin (clemontanoside C), exhibited significant growth inhibitions on Pyricularia oryzae, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Fomitiporia mediterranea and Zymoseptoria tritici. Monodesmoside triterpene saponins, in particular, exhibited MIC (IC100) values as low as 25 μg/ml and IC50 values as low as 10 μg/ml against these phytopathogens. Structure-activity relationships, as well as plant-microbe interactions, were discussed.
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