Background: We previously validated in European patients with NSCLC treated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitors the cumulative detrimental effect of concomitant medications. Materials and methods: We evaluated the prognostic ability of a “drug score” computed on the basis of baseline corticosteroids, proton pump inhibitors, and antibiotics, in an independent cohort of Japanese patients with advanced NSCLC treated with PD-1 monotherapy. Subsequently, we assessed the impact of baseline probiotics on the score's diagnostic ability and their interaction with antibiotics in influencing survival. Results: Among the 293 eligible patients, good (19.5 months), intermediate (13.4 months), and poor (3.7 months) risk groups displayed a significantly different overall survival (OS) (log-rank test for trend: p = 0.016), but with a limited diagnostic ability (C-index: 0.57, 95%CI: 0.53–0.61), while no significant impact on progression-free survival (PFS) was reported (log-rank test for trend: p = 0.080; C-index: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.52–0.58). Considering the impact of the probiotics∗antibiotics interaction (p-value 0.0510) on OS, we implemented the drug score by assigning 0 points to concomitant antibiotics and probiotics. With the adapted drug score good, intermediate, and poor risk patients achieved a median OS of 19.6 months, 13.1 months, and 3.7 months, respectively, with a similar diagnostic ability (log-rank test for trend: p = 0.006; C-index: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.54–0.61). However, the diagnostic ability for PFS of the adapted score was improved (log-rank test for trend: p = 0.034; C-index: 0.62, 95%CI: 0.54–0.69). Conclusions: Although we failed to validate the drug score in this independent Japanese cohort, we showed that probiotics may have an antibiotic-dependent impact on its prognostic value. Further investigation looking at the effect of concomitant medications and probiotics across cohorts of different ethnicities is warranted.
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