Aphaenogaster gamagumayaa sp. nov., a new troglobiotic (true cave-dwelling) ant species, from a limestone cave on the island of Okinawa (Okinawa-jima), Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan is described. This is the first discovery of a troglobiotic ant in Japan and the second verified record worldwide. This species has only been found in a cave area with heavy guano deposits, and some worker ants were observed carrying guano. The evidence for categorizing this new species as troglobiont is discussed.
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