There has been limited data discussing the relationship between apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (ATRH) and cardiovascular disease risk in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. We analyzed data for 2999 hypertensive patients on maintenance hemodialysis. ATRH was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure despite the use of three or more classes of antihypertensive medications, or four or more classes of antihypertensive medications regardless of blood pressure level. We examined the relationships between ATRH and cardiovascular events using a Cox proportional hazards model. The proportion of participants with ATRH was 18.0% (539/2999). During follow-up (median: 106.6 months, interquartile range: 51.3–121.8 months), 931 patients experienced cardiovascular events including coronary heart disease (n = 424), hemorrhagic stroke (n = 158), ischemic stroke (n = 344), and peripheral arterial disease (n = 242). Compared with the non-ATRH group, the ATRH group showed a significant increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–1.49), coronary heart disease (HR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.01–1.62), ischemic stroke (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.01–1.69), and peripheral arterial disease (HR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06–1.91) even after adjusting for potential confounders. This study demonstrated that ATRH was significantly associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients.
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