Geopolymers, as a kind of inorganic polymer, possess excellent properties and have been broadly studied for the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of hazardous pollutants. Even though many reviews about geopolymers have been published, the summary of geopolymer-based S/S for various contaminants has not been well conducted. Therefore, the S/S of hazardous pollutants using geopolymers are comprehensively summarized in this review. Geopolymer-based S/S of typical cations, including Pb, Zn, Cd, Cs, Cu, Sr, Ni, etc., were involved and elucidated. The S/S mechanisms for cationic heavy metals were concluded, mainly including physical encapsulation, sorption, precipitation, and bonding with a silicate structure. In addition, compared to cationic ions, geopolymers have a poor immobilization ability on anions due to the repulsive effect between them, presenting a high leaching percentage. However, some anions, such as Se or As oxyanions, have been proved to exist in geopolymers through electrostatic interaction, which provides a direction to enhance the geopolymer-based S/S for anions. Besides, few reports about geopolymer-based S/S of organic pollutants have been published. Furthermore, the adsorbents of geopolymer-based composites designed and studied for the removal of hazardous pollutants from aqueous conditions are also briefly discussed. On the whole, this review will offer insights into geopolymer-based S/S technology. Furthermore, the challenges to geopolymer-based S/S technology outlined in this work are expected to be of direct relevance to the focus of future research.
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