Social presence is a key approach to activating interactions in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), but its approaches, definitions, and evaluations have not been coherently presented in previous research. This chapter provides practical suggestions and implications regarding CSCL to help motivate social interactions among students and ensure effective and attractive learning. Three major approaches and focuses are discussed first: features of communication media (e.g., Short, et al., 1976); interaction and the learner's perception of interaction (e.g., Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997; Tu & McIssac, 2002); and learner's ability (e.g., Garrison, et al., 2000; Garrison & Anderson, 2003). Integration and refinement of the central concepts are then illustrated. Conditions to establish social presence are introduced, using three steps for both individuals and groups: expression, perception, and recognition, which are all applicable to CSCL design. Media features are also explored as determinant factors when promoting social presence in a learning community.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Social Sciences(all)