Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airways inflammation and reversible airflow limitation. In patients with asthma, symptoms generally worsen during the early hours of the morning, and pulmonary function often deteriorates at the same time, suggesting a role for chronopharmacotherapy. Several drugs for asthma have been developed based on chronopharmacology. Most medications employed for the chronotherapy of asthma are administered once at night with the goal of preventing chronic airway inflammation or development of airflow limitation. In addition to bronchodilators, the inhaled glucocorticosteroid ciclesonide is now available with once-daily dosing, which also improves patients' compliance. Numerous investigations have demonstrated the usefulness of chronotherapy for asthma, especially for patients with nocturnal asthma. This review focuses on chronotherapy of asthma, and also provides a molecular biological explanation for the influence of asthma medications on the clock genes.
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