Purpose: Granulocytopenia is the major toxicity associated with cisplatin treatment. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone used clinically for the treatment of acute heart failure in Japan. ANP exerts a wide range of protective effects on various organs, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, and kidneys. This study’s objective was to investigate the protective effects of ANP on cisplatin-induced granulocytopenia in mice. Methods: The mice were divided into two groups: cisplatin with vehicle and cisplatin with ANP. ANP (1.5 μg/kg/min via osmotic pump, subcutaneously) or vehicle administration was started 1 day before cisplatin injection until the mice were killed. At 0, 2, 4, 8, and 14 days after cisplatin injection (16 mg/kg, intraperitoneally as a single dose), the white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet counts were measured in the peripheral blood in both groups. The numbers of total and live cells and colony-forming unit-granulocyte–macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies in the bone marrow of the mice were also examined. In addition, at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 days after cisplatin injection, serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were measured. Results: ANP significantly attenuated the white blood cell count decrease in the peripheral blood 2 and 4 days after cisplatin injection. ANP also attenuated the decrease in the number of live cells and CFU-GM colonies in bone marrow 2, 4, and 8 days after cisplatin injection. ANP significantly increased serum G-CSF levels 1 day after cisplatin injection. Conclusions: ANP has protective effects in cisplatin-induced granulocytopenia, with increased G-CSF production.
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