We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 81 patients with non-M3 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) who were treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Auto-PBSCT) by the Fukuoka Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group between 1989 and 2005. Cytogenetically, 16 patients were defined as good risk, 56 as intermediate risk, and nine as poor risk, following the Southwest Oncology Group criteria. The pre-transplant conditioning regimen consisted of high-dose busulfan, etoposide, and cytarabine (BEA regimen), combined with priming by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival at 5 years were 64.0 % (95 % CI 52.5-73.4) and 66.4 % (95 % CI 54.9-75.6) after Auto-PBSCT at a median follow-up time of 103 months (range 3-240 months), respectively. Two patients died of transplant-related pulmonary complications 6 months after Auto-PBSCT without relapse. The 5-year DFS rates of patients in the genetically good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups were 80.8, 64.3, and 33.3 %, respectively, but there was no significant difference statistically among the risk groups (log-rank p = 0.0579). These observations suggest that HDCT supported by Auto-PBSCT with the BEA regimen combined with G-CSF priming is a therapeutic option for postremission therapy of AML in CR1.
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