In this study, electron and hole injection, and transport in semi-transparent organic light-emitting diodes, including dielectric/metal/dielectric (DMD) electrodes, were investigated. The DMD electrode was modified by incorporating a 5 nm-thick Cs:MoOx layer and a 10 nm-thick 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN) layer to improve the electron and hole injection in standard and inverse structures, respectively. The inverse structure showed a reasonably good and stable external quantum efficiency due to the well-balanced carrier densities at both low and high voltages which was confirmed by an electrical simulation study. Also, the peak position of the hole and electron recombination rate in the inverse structure was located on the ITO side, which is beneficial for reducing exciton quenching and photon absorption by metallic electrodes.
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