Background: Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked disorder characterized by rapidly progressive deterioration of neurocognitive functions and premature death. In addition to the difficulty in identifying the earliest signs of ALD, treatment-associated exacerbation of neurological symptoms has been an obstacle to achieve successful hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for affected children. Case report: We report a 9-year-boy with ALD. He presented with impairment in social skills compatible to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from 3 years of age. He showed progressive strabismus, slurred speech and dysmetria at 6 years of age. The head MRI showed symmetrical T2-hyperintense lesions in the occipital white matters with a gadolinium enhancement, which extended to the internal capsules. The Loes score was thus calculated as 13. Very-long-chain-fatty-acids were increased to 1.800 (C24:0/C22:0) and 0.077 (C26:0/C22:0) in leukocytes. Sanger sequencing confirmed the pathogenic variant in ABCD1 (NM_000033.4:p.Gly512Ser). After multidisciplinary discussions over the treatment options, we performed a cord blood HCT with a reduced intensity conditioning (fludarabine, melphalan and brain-sparing total body irradiation). He was fully recovered with >90% chimerism of donor leukocytes at 55 days after HCT. He experienced three times of generalized seizures after discharge, that has been well controlled for 2 years without other complications or neurocognitive deteriorations. Conclusion: For patients with ALD on a borderline indication for HCT, brain-sparing irradiation might be an alternative option in reduced intensity conditioning. Careful decision-making process and tailored conditioning are critical for the successful outcome of HCT for children with ALD.
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