Rice plants with bacterial leaf-sheath browning and grain rot were observed in Fukuoka Prefecture in Japan during the autumn seasons of 1995 and 1996. Burkholderia spp. were consistently isolated from the infected leaf sheaths and grains. These isolates were pathogenic and induced symptoms of seedling rot, grain rot, and leaf-sheath browning in rice plants, as well as in some orchidaceous plants (cymbidium, dendrobium, and oncidium leaves), gladiolus leaves, and onion bulbs. On the basis of morphological, physiological and pathological tests, and species-specific polymerase chain reaction, the isolates were identified as belonging to either Burkholderia glumae or Burkholderia gladioli. B. gladioli, as well as B. glumae, attacked rice plants after artificial inoculation and reproduced the symptoms similar to those after natural infections. We confirmed that rice is an additional natural host of B. gladioli. It is clarified that bacterial grain rot of rice is caused not only by B. glumae but also by B. gladioli.
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