Incorporation in the dihydrohelicene framework prevents deprotonation of the title dications by steric factors, thus allowing their isolation as deeply colored stable salts. Based on the reversible interconversion with the electron-donating binaphthylic diolefins, they constitute a new class of electrochromic systems, in which C-C bond making/breaking is accompanied by two-electron transfer. Optically pure (R)-binaphthylic donors are interconvertible with the 1,4-dications with the R,R-configuration. The very large molar ellipticity makes it possible for them to be used as electrochiroptical response systems, by which the electrochemical input is transduced into two spectral outputs, i.e. UV-Vis and circular dichroism. Structurally related push-pull-type bis(quinonemethide)s also exhibit a similar multi-output electrochemical response.
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