Host immune systems are constantly engaged with fungal pathogens which are common in environments as well as in healthy human skin and mucosa. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are expressed in myeloid cells and play central roles in host defenses against fungal infections by coordinating innate and adaptive immune systems. Upon ligand binding, CLRs stimulate cellular responses by inducing the production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species via the Syk/CARD9 signaling pathway, leading to fungal elimination. Due to identification and characterization of the CLRs, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-fungal immunity are being unveiled in the present decade. In this review, we focus on the anti-fungal activities of CLRs and summarize of current knowledge of the related expression profiles, modes of ligand recognition, and signaling cascades.
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