Background: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has pro- or anti-tumourigenic effect depending on the cancer type. However, its effect in intrahepatic carcinoma (ICC) remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between CAV1 in CAFs and tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) numbers or PD-L1 levels in ICC patients. Methods: Consecutive ICC patients (n = 158) were enrolled in this study. The levels of CAV1 in CAFs, CD8 + TILs, Foxp3+ TILs and PD-L1 in cancer cells were analysed using immunohistochemistry. Their association with the clinicopathological factors and prognosis were evaluated. The correlation between these factors was evaluated. Results: CAV1 upregulation in CAFs was associated with a poor overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (P = 0.008). Clinicopathological factors were associated with high CA19-9 levels (P < 0.001), advanced tumour stage (P = 0.046) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004). CAV1 level was positively correlated with Foxp3+ TIL numbers (P = 0.01). There were no significant correlations between CAV1 levels and CD8 + TIL numbers (P = 0.80) and PD-L1 levels (P = 0.97). An increased CD8 + TIL number and decreased Foxp3+ TIL number were associated with an increased OS. In multivariate analysis, positive CAV1 expression in CAFs (P = 0.013) and decreased CD8 + TIL numbers (P = 0.021) were independent poor prognostic factors. Conclusion: Cellular senescence, represented by CAV1 levels, may be a marker of CAFs and a prognostic indicator of ICC through Foxp3+ TIL regulation. CAV1 expression in CAFs can be a therapeutic target for ICC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes