Aims: Consensus-derived guidelines recommend renal stenting for patients with atherosclerotic renal artery disease (ARAD) and heart failure (HF). The aim of this prospective multi-centre observational study was to verify our hypothesis that changes in E/e′, an echocardiographic correlate of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure, following renal stenting may differ between ARAD patients with and without HF. Methods and results: This study enrolled de novo ARAD patients undergoing renal stenting at 14 institutions. The primary endpoint was the difference in E/e′ change between ARAD patients with and without HF. Clinical and echocardiographic data were prospectively collected at baseline, the day following renal stenting, and 1 month and 6 months afterwards. ARAD patients with HF were defined as patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class 2 and more, or a history of HF hospitalization. A total of 76 patients were included, and 39% were ARAD patients with HF. ARAD patients with HF had significantly lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.028) and higher NYHA functional class (P < 0.001) and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) score (P = 0.001) than ARAD patients without HF. Also, ARAD patients with HF had significantly lower LV ejection fraction (P = 0.003) and e′-velocity (P = 0.003) and higher E/e′ ratio (P = 0.001), left atrial volume index (LAVI) (P = 0.046), LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) (P = 0.001), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) (P = 0.001), and LV mass index (P = 0.009) than ARAD patients without HF. All procedures were successful. In contrast to blood pressure and renal function, there was a significant interaction in E/e′ (P interaction < 0.001) between time and HF, and ARAD patients with HF showed a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in E/e′ albeit those without HF. By the same token, there was a significant interaction in NYHA class (P interaction < 0.001), MLHFQ score (P interaction = 0.018), E-velocity (P interaction = 0.002), LAVI (P interaction = 0.001), LVEDV (P interaction = 0.003), and LVESV (P interaction = 0.001) between time and HF with a significant improvement in all these variables in ARAD patients with HF (NYHA class, P = 0.001; MLHFQ score, P = 0.002; E-velocity, P = 0.005; LAVI, P = 0.001; LVEDV, P = 0.017; and LVESV, P = 0.011). Conclusions: Change in LV filling pressure after renal stenting differed between ARAD patients with and without HF, with a significant improvement in LV filling pressure in patients with HF-ARAD. These unique findings might support clinical cardiac benefits of renal stenting in ARAD patients with HF.
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