Chicken bone by-product has the potential to be utilized as a source of carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) for the preparation of bone grafts. In this study, the raw bones were cleaned with NaCl and then immersed inNaOHsolution at 80 °C. After chemical treatment, the as-prepared powder was calcined in a range of 300 °C-900 °C. The results showed that calcination was useful for the complete elimination of organic residues; but, it led to increasing of crystal size, coarsening of particles, and the loss of the carbonate groups in the apatite structure. In vitro evaluation showed thatCO3Ap prepared at the optimum temperature, 500 °C, exhibited a great biological response; such as good cell attachment, cell viability, and cell morphology. This research suggests a promising biomaterial for the fabrication of bone substitutes and could offer a solution for recycling and adding value to food waste.
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