The chemical bonding state at grain boundaries was examined with electron- energy-loss spectroscopy in BaTiO3doped with a small amount of cations at a level of 0.001. In contrast with A-site excess compounds, the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure spectra were different for grain interiors and for grain boundaries in B-site excess compounds. The difference is explained in terms of the linkage of TiO6octahedra at grain boundaries in the B-site excess BaTiO3.
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