Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an acquired fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia caused by phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) developed in the bone or soft tissue. Diagnostic delay should be addressed, and ideal techniques to localize PMTs and efficient treatment options should be explored to improve the outcomes of this rare disease. To clarify the detailed clinical course and outcomes of TIO patients, retrospective questionnaire surveys were conducted among physicians from the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research (JSBMR) and the Japan Endocrine Society (JES). The primary survey collected the number of TIO patients between January 2007 and December 2018. The secondary survey aimed to obtain the detailed characteristics, laboratory data, and outcomes. Eighty-eight patients (52 males, mean: 52 years old) were included, and 24 patients were clinically diagnosed with TIO without localized PMTs. The median duration from the onset to detection of high FGF23 levels was 3.4 years, with 77 patients being initially misdiagnosed. Among the methods used to detect small, localized PMTs (≤10 mm), fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy were less sensitive than somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography/computed tomography (SRPET/CT). Systemic venous sampling (SVS) of FGF23 was performed in 53 patients; among them, SVS was considered useful for detecting localized PMTs in 45 patients with diverse tumor sizes. Finally, 45 patients achieved biochemical remission by surgery, 39 patients continued pharmaceutical treatment, including burosumab (11 patients), and four patients died. These results encouraged us to further increase the awareness of TIO and to improve the accessibility of SRPET/CT and SVS. Further evidence about the efficacy of new pharmaceutical treatments is awaited.
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