In recent years, large cohort studies of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been established all over the world. These studies have attempted to analyze the pathogenesis of CKD using a large body of published evidence. The design of cohort studies is characterized by the measurement of the exposure prior to the occurrence of the outcome, which has the advantage of clarifying the temporal relationship between predictors and outcomes and estimating the strength of the causal relationship between predictors and multiple outcomes. Recent advances in biostatistical analysis methods, such as propensity scores and risk prediction models, are facilitating causal inference using higher quality evidence with greater precision in observational studies. In this review, we will discuss clinical epidemiological research of kidney disease based on the analysis of observational cohort data sets, with a focus on our previous studies.
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