There are few multicenter investigations regarding the relationship between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and infection-control activities in Japanese hospitals. Hence, we aimed to identify Japanese hospital subgroups based on facility characteristics and infection-control activities. More-over, we evaluated the relationship between AMR and hospital subgroups. We conducted a cross-sectional study using administrative claims data and antimicrobial susceptibility data in 124 hospitals from April 2016 to March 2017. Hospitals were classified using cluster analysis based the principal component analysis-transformed data. We assessed the relationship between each cluster and AMR using analysis of variance. Ten variables were selected and transformed into four principal components, and five clusters were identified. Cluster 5 had high infection control activity. Cluster 2 had partially lower activity of infection control than the other clusters. Clusters 3 and 4 had a higher rate of surgeries than Cluster 1. The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/S. aureus detection rate was lowest in Cluster 1, followed, respectively, by Clusters 5, 2, 4, and 3. The MRSA/S. aureus detection rate differed significantly between Clusters 4 and 5 (p = 0.0046). Our find-ings suggest that aggressive examination practices are associated with low AMR whereas surgeries, an infection risk factor, are associated with high AMR.
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