Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether or not we could distinguish uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) from other types of endometrial cancer by cytology. Methods: We examined the cytological findings of the endometrium from five cases with UPSC and compared them with 10 cases with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, grade 1 (G1). A morphometric analysis was performed. Cytological samples from the cervix and ascites of the patients with UPSC were also reviewed. Results: All five patients had FIGO stage III and IV tumours. Three patients died of the disease and two are still alive with disease. The tumour cells of UPSC tended to be shed in papillary clusters with a tumour diathesis. Psammoma bodies were seen only in UPSC. The frequency of irregular-shaped nuclei, membrane thickness and eccentric nuclei in UPSC was higher than in G1. The chromatin pattern was coarsely granular, and both anisonucleosis and bare nuclei were prominent in UPSC. Cytomorphometrically, the maximum diameter of the nuclei in UPSC was significantly greater than that in G1. The nucleoli were also more often seen in UPSC than in G1. The findings of the nuclei and nucleoli in the cervical and peritoneal fluid cytology closely resembled those in endometrial smears. The features of the cervical smears and peritoneal fluid cytology were different from those of endometrial cytology regarding clear background and small clusters of cells. Conclusion: As the endometrial cytology findings accurately suggested the histological diagnosis of UPSC, the diagnosis of UPSC was confirmed in this study by endometrial cytology. The cytological diagnosis of UPSC should be based on the findings of tumour diathesis, psammoma bodies and papillary clusters composed of tumour cells with enlarged nuclei and numerous nucleoli.
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