Recently, brain-computer interfaces, combined with feedback systems and goal-oriented training, have been investigated for their capacity to promote functional recovery after stroke. Accordingly, we developed a brain-computer interface-triggered robotic hand orthosis that assists hand-closing and hand-opening for post-stroke patients without sufficient motor output. In this system, near-infrared spectroscopy is used to monitor the affected motor cortex, and a linear discriminant analysis-based binary classifier estimates hand posture. The estimated posture then wirelessly triggers the robotic hand orthosis. For better performance of the brain-computer interface, we tested feature windows of different lengths and varying feature vector compositions with motor execution data from seven neurologically intact participants. The interaction between a feature window and a delay in the hemodynamic response significantly affected both classification accuracy (Matthew Correlation Coefficient) and detection latency. The 'preserving channels' feature vector was able to increase accuracy by 13.14% and decrease latency by 29.48%, relative to averaging. Oxyhemoglobin combined with deoxyhemoglobin improved accuracy by 3.71% and decreased latency by 6.01% relative to oxyhemoglobin alone. Thus, the best classification performance resulted in an accuracy of 0.7154 and a latency of 2.8515 s. The hand rehabilitation system was successfully implemented using this feature vector composition, which yielded better classification performance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes