Transmission electron microscopy observations of the recovered slugs of electroformed copper liner materials that had undergone high-strain-rate deformation show the existence of a wide range of crystal defects, including vacancy clusters and porosity. Cellular structures formed by tangled dislocations and subgrain boundaries consisting of dislocation arrays were also detected. Electron backscattering Kikuchi pattern technique analysis reveals that the fibrous texture observed in the as-formed copper liners of shaped charges disappeared after explosive detonation deformation. In a specimen that had been plastically deformed at a normal strain rate (4 × 10-4 s-1), a high density of dislocations was observed within grains. These experimental results indicate that dynamic recovery and recrystallization play an important role during high-strain-rate deformation by virtue of a temperature increase in the deformation process, whereas the conventional slip mechanism operates during deformation at the normal strain rates.
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