Selective flotation of chalcopyrite and molybdenite was studied using various surface treatment methods such as electrolysis, ozone treatment, and plasma. Oxidation via electrolysis method indicated that only chalcopyrite surface is affected by electrolysis due to conductivity difference with molybdenite. Oxidation treatments and XPS analyses indicated that chalcopyrite became hydrophilic due to deposition of oxidized iron on its surface. Various oxidizing methods also showed that chalcopyrite was selectively oxidized and this can apply selective flotation of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. The possible mechanisms are proposed in this work based on surface analyses and thermodynamic calculations.