Background: Complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a retinal disorder thought to be non-progressive. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical and genetic findings of middle-aged and older adult patients with X-linked complete CSNB. Methods: Three male CSNB patients (aged 62, 72, and 51 years) and one unaffected female carrier in a Japanese family were included in this study. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed to determine the disease-causing variants. Co-segregation was confirmed in the family members. We performed a comprehensive ophthalmic examination on each patient. Results: In the 62-year-old patient, a novel hemizygous variant (c.648 C > A; p.Asn216Lys) of the NYX gene was identified by WES analysis. The other two patients carried the variant hemizygously, and the unaffected carrier harbored the variant heterozygously. The clinical and electroretinography (ERG) findings were very similar among all three patients. Fundus images exhibited high myopic chorioretinal atrophy with long axial length. Ultra-wide field fundus autofluorescence images showed no retinal degenerative changes except for changes resulting from high myopia and previous retinal diseases. The ERG findings showed no response in rod ERG, electronegative configuration with preserved a-waves in standard/bright-flash ERG, and preserved responses in cone and 30-Hz flicker ERG, which were compared with age-matched controls with high myopia. Conclusions: We identified a novel missense NYX variant in a Japanese family with complete CSNB. Our clinical findings indicated that photoreceptor mediated ERG responses are well preserved even in middle-aged and older adult patients.
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