Background: There have been few reports on the incidence and risk factors of the complications after spinal fixation surgery for osteoporotic vertebral collapse (OVC) with neurological deficits. This study aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of the complications after OVC surgery. Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, a total of 403 patients (314 women and 89 men; mean age 73.8 years) who underwent spinal fixation surgery for OVC with neurological deficits between 2005 and 2014 were enrolled. Data on patient demographics were collected, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, steroid use, medical comorbidities, and surgical procedures. All postoperative complications that occurred within 6 weeks were recorded. Patients were classified into two groups, namely, complication group and no complication group, and risk factors for postoperative complications were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Postoperative complications occurred in 57 patients (14.1%), and the most common complication was delirium (5.7%). In the univariate analysis, the complication group was found to be older (p = 0.039) and predominantly male (p = 0.049), with higher occurrence rate of liver disease (p = 0.001) and Parkinson's disease (p = 0.039) compared with the no-complication group. In the multivariate analysis, the significant independent risk factors were age (p = 0.021; odds ratio [OR] 1.051, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.007–1.097), liver disease (p < 0.001; OR 8.993, 95% CI 2.882–28.065), and Parkinson's disease (p = 0.009; OR 3.636, 95% CI 1.378–9.599). Conclusions: Complications after spinal fixation surgery for OVC with neurological deficits occurred in 14.1%. Age, liver disease, and Parkinson's disease were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for postoperative complications.
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