Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a poor prognosis when treated with chemotherapy alone; therefore, allogeneic stem cell transplantation is a consideration. We attempted cord blood transplantation (CBT) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen without total body irradiation (non-TBI-RIC) to allow for the best possible timing of transplantation and improve survival outcomes, particularly in older patients. Forty-eight patients (27 male, 21 female) underwent CBT using fludarabine (Flu) 125 mg/m2 and melphalan (Mel) 140 mg/m2 as pre-transplant conditioning. The median age was 32 years (range 44–72), and 21 patients were in complete remission (CR) at the time of CBT. The median duration to neutrophil engraftment (NE) was 19.5 days (range 15–50), with a cumulative incidence of NE of 86.7% at day 50 after CBT. The 1- and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 40.4% and 37.7%, respectively. The 3-year OS rate in CR patients was 60.8%, compared with 18.8% in non-CR patients. In ATLL patients, CBT with non-TBI-RIC using Flu/Mel is a promising treatment strategy.
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