A number of two-dimensional (2D) critical phenomena can be described in terms of the 2D sine-Gordon model. With bosonization, several 1D quantum systems can be transformed to the same model. However, the transition of the 2D sine-Gordon model, the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, is essentially different from a second-order transition. The divergence of the correlation length is more rapid than any power law, and there are logarithmic corrections. These pathological features make it difficult to determine the BKT transition point and critical indices from finite-size calculations. In this paper we calculate correlation functions of this model using a real-space renormalization technique. It is found that several correlation functions, or eigenvalues of the corresponding transfer matrix for a finite system, become degenerate on the BKT line, including the logarithmic corrections. By the use of this degeneracy, which reflects the hidden SU(2) symmetry on the BKT line, it is possible to determine the BKT critical line with high precision from a small amount of data and to identify the universality class. In addition, new universal relations are found. These results shed light on the relation between Abelian and non-Abelian bosonization.
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