Since 1941, the standard treatment for metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) was androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by surgical or medical castration with or without first-generation antiandrogen. However, the efficacy of ADT does not last in most cases. In the 2010s, de-intensification by intermittent ADT was evaluated by RCTs for mCSPC to mitigate the treatment-emerged burdens. However, intermittent ADT failed to show non-inferiority in OS for mCSPC and is an optional treatment for selected patients with mCSPC. The treatment for patients with mCSPC has improved in the last years. Currently, based on the evidence from RCTs, intensification treatment by adding docetaxel, novel androgen receptor pathway inhibitors and multimodal treatment using radiotherapy to the primary have become new standard treatments for mCSPC. Furthermore, ongoing RCTs have been investigating the clinical values of more intensified treatments by combining multiple effective treatment for mCSPC. In addition, novel treatment using immunotherapeutics such as anti-PD-1 antibody and precision medicine approach using novel imaging and genomic marker has been investigated vigorously. Thus, we review current treatment evidence obtained by RCTs that included patients with mCSPC. The future key to mCSPC treatment could be personalized medicine including translational and clinical medicine aspects, with molecular testing to assess the biological tumor behavior to optimize clinical decision-making.
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