Immune tolerance against alloantigens plays an important role in the success of clinical organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The mechanisms of immune tolerance to alloantigens have gradually been elucidated over time. Although there have been numerous reports to date on the induction of tolerance to alloantigens, the establishment of mixed chimerism is well-known to be crucial in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance for either of the methods. Since the early 1980s, the murine system of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced tolerance has also been examined extensively. The present review focuses on studies conducted on Cy-induced immune tolerance. Clinical data of patients with allogeneic transplantation suggest that the posttransplant Cy method to induce immune tolerance has been successfully translated from basic studies into clinical practice.
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