A 31-day-old infant was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to shock and anemia. The mother had systemic lupus erythematosus and direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-positive hemolytic anemia. The perinatal course of this infant and the mother was uneventful. Regular health check screenings revealed that activity, growth, and development were unremarkable at birth, 5, and 28 days of life. Passive immune hemolytic anemia due to neonatal lupus erythematosus was diagnosed based on a positive DAT for warm-type IgG antibodies, reticulocytosis, and lupus-specific antibodies at rehospitalization. It was complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia. Umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood samples obtained from the infant at 5 days after birth were negative for CMV DNA. The infant was curatively treated by intensive care with repeated blood transfusions and antiviral therapy. This is the first report indicating that CMV infection exacerbates hemolytic anemia in patients with maternal red blood cell alloantibodies.
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