We report the whole DNA sequence of two plasmids, pPI-1 (30.2 kb) and pPI-2 (2.8 kb). These plasmids are from Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1, which produces a lantibiotic, nukacin ISK-1. Curing of pPI-1 resulted in a loss of bactericidal activity in the culture supernatant and the host's immunity to nukacin ISK-1, suggesting that the biosynthetic genes of the bacteriocin are encoded by pPI-1. Based on the results of a homology search of each open reading flame, pPI-1 is comprised of the following four distinct regions: (1) the nukacin ISK-1 biosynthesis and immunity gene cluster, (2) the thioredoxin gene cluster, (3) the replication region, and (4) a region of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, highly homologous to pSE-12228-05. Gene organization in the nukacin ISK-1 biosynthesis and immunity gene cluster is different from that in other lacticin-481 type gene clusters. The features of the replication protein encoded in the replicating region are somewhat different from other staphylococcus theta-replicating plasmids. pPI-2 comprised a disinfectant resistant gene, qacC, and the whole DNA sequence showed significant similarity to those of other qacC plasmids such as pSK108, suggesting that pPI-2 belongs to the qacC plasmid group.
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