Selecting the optimum dose of valproic acid is difficult because the pharmacokinetics are complicated by inter-patient variability and by effects arising as a result of co-administration with other antiepileptic drugs. The multiple peak approach has been used to evaluate the effect of age, total body weight, dose, gender and co-medication (carbamazepine-induced change) on population estimates of valproic acid relative clearance. Routine clinical pharmacokinetic data (n = 479) were collected from 207 epilepsy patients on combination therapy. The data were analysed by a simple steady-state pharmacokinetic model with the use of NONMEM, a computer program designed for population pharmacokinetic analysis that enables pooling of data. NONMEM estimates suggested that the rate of valproic acid clearance in patients receiving concomitant administration of valproic acid and carbamazepine decreased non-linearly with increasing total body weight in the maturation process, and increased non-linearly with increasing valproic acid dose. The clearance in females was 5.7% less than in males. NONMEM estimates also suggested that the rate of valproic acid clearance increased non-linearly with increasing carbamazepine dose. Concomitant administration of valproic acid and carbamazepine with other antiepileptic drugs resulted in an increase in valproic acid clearance of 10%. The final regression model of valproic acid relative clearance was CL = 6.06TBW-0.168 x DOSE0.414 x CBZDOSE0.095 x 0.943(GEN) x 1.10(CO), where CL is the clearance (mL kg-1 h-1), TBW is the total body weight (kg), DOSE is the dose of valproic acid, CBZDOSE is the dose of carbamazepine, GEN = 0 for males and 1 for females and CO = 0 for concomitant administration of valproic acid and carbamazepine and 1 for concomitant administration of valproic acid and carbamazepine with other antiepileptic drugs. This technique can be used to estimate the pharmacokinetic parameters of a population from sparse data collected during routine clinical care and to determine the extent to which patient characteristics influence drug pharmacokinetics.
|ジャーナル||Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology|
|出版ステータス||出版済み - 8月 1997|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes