Morphological, molecular and ecological studies revealed that Kiefferia Mik, 1985 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is not a monotypic genus. Two new species, Kiefferia ezoensis sp. nov. and K. olla sp. nov. from Japan and Korea are added to the known European species, Kiefferia pericarpiicola. The new and known species are distinguishable from each other mainly by the shape of the larval sternal spatula. Molecular data support the results of morphological classification. Species of Kiefferia induce fruit galls on various plant species of Apiaceae. We found that K. ezoensis and K. olla utilized exclusively Angelica ursina and Oenanthe javanica, respectively. In contrast, we listed 37 apiaceous species belonging to 23 genera as hosts for K. pericarpiicola from previously published reports, suggesting the existence of additional undescribed species. Life history patterns of the three species are distinctly different from each other. Mature larvae of K. ezoensis and K. olla drop to the ground with the fruit gall in October and September, respectively, whereas mature larvae of K. pericarpiicola quit the galls and drop to the ground in August. A key to the Kiefferia species is provided based on morphological features and information on life history patterns and host ranges.
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