In the case of dental pulp exposure, direct pulp capping is often performed to preserve vital dental pulp tissue. Numerous studies regarding the development of direct pulp-capping materials have been conducted, but materials with an appropriate sealing ability, which induce dense reparative dentin formation, have not been developed. Although nano hydroxyapatite (naHAp) is a bone-filling material with bioactivity and biocompatibility, the inductive effects of naHAp on reparative dentin formation remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of dental adhesive material 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride/methyl methacrylate tri-n-butylborane [4-META/MMA-TBB or Super-bond (SB)], which included 10%, 30%, and 50% naHAp (naHAp/SB) on odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and reparative dentin formation were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis were performed to verify the existence of naHAp particles on the surface of naHAp/SB discs. The tensile adhesive strength of naHAp/SB was measured using a universal testing machine. As a result, 10% naHAp/SB and 30% naHAp/SB showed almost the same tensile adhesive strength as SB but 50% naHAp/SB showed significantly lower than the other experimental group. WST-1 proliferation assay and SEM analysis revealed that naHAp/SB did not affect the proliferation of DPSCs. Calcium release assay, quantitative RT-PCR, and western blotting analysis demonstrated that naHAp/SB did not release calcium ion but 30% naHAp/SB increased the expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in DPSCs. Additionally, quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting analysis, Alizarin Red S- and von Kossa staining revealed that 30% naHAp/SB induced odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs, which was inhibited by a MEK/ERK inhibitor and CaSR antagonist. Furthermore, 30% naHAp/SB promoted dense reparative dentin formation in an experimentally-formed rat dental pulp exposure model. These findings suggest that 30% naHAp/SB can be used as an ideal direct pulp capping material.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes