This study reported a novel synthetic zeolite based adsorbent developed from the municipal wastewater sludge molten slag (bio-slag) through the hydrothermal modification process for removal of cesium (Cs) from simulated wastewater. The artificial zeolites were produced from the raw bio-slag which was identified by the several physicochemical experimental procedures such as the surface area analysis (the BET technique), the FESEM, the XRF and the XRD. The Cs adsorption process of modified bio-slag was exmined by the linear pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intra-particles diffusion models whilst the second order kinetic model confirmed a better agreement with the correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.999-1.000 for 20-400 mg/L Cs solution. The Langmuir, Freundlich and the Temkin isotherm model were investigated using the adsorption isotherm data. A satisfactory correlation coefficient value (R2= >0.980) proved that the isotherm parameters were perfectly fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the highest Cs adsorption ability of modified bio-slag were 51.02, 51.02 and 49.51 mg/g at 288, 298 and 308 K, respectively. The better agreement of adsorption data with the second order kinetic model and the Langmuir model proved the adsorption mechanism was controlled by the chemical reaction (ion-exchange). Thermodynamic studies under the different temperatures proved that the adsorption reaction was endothermic (ΔH =20.53 kJ/mol) and ΔS = 0.021 kJ/mol/K) and non-spontaneous (ΔG>0). Moreover, the modified bio-slag effectively removed Cs even in the co-existence of Na+ and K+ as competitive ions at their wide range of concentrations (upto 300 mM) although the higher concentration slightly affected the Cs adsorption.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Process Chemistry and Technology