Recently, metabolome analysis has been increasingly applied to biomarker detection and disease diagnosis in medical studies. Metabolome analysis is a strategy for studying the characteristics and interactions of low molecular weight metabolites under a specific set of conditions and is performed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is a strong possibility that changes in metabolite levels reflect the functional status of a cell because alterations in their levels occur downstream of DNA, RNA, and protein. Therefore, the metabolite profile of a cell is more likely to represent the current status of a cell than DNA, RNA, or protein. Thus, owing to the rapid development of mass spectrometry analytical techniques metabolome analysis is becoming an important experimental method in life sciences including the medical field. Here, we describe metabolome analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry. Then, the findings of studies about GC-MS-based metabolome analysis of gastroenterological diseases are summarized, and our research results are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the realization of disease diagnosis by metabolome analysis. The development of metabolome analysis using mass spectrometry will aid the discovery of novel biomarkers, hopefully leading to the early detection of various diseases.
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