White adipose tissue (eWAT) plays a crucial role in preventing metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate WAT distribution and gene expression and lipidomic profiles in epididymal WAT (eWAT) in diet-induced obese mice, reflecting a Western-style diet of humans to elucidate the bioactive properties of the dietary antioxidant curcumin in preventing lifestyle-related diseases. For 16 weeks, we fed C57BL/6J mice with a control diet, a high-fat, high-sucrose and high-cholesterol Western diet or Western diet supplemented with 0.1% (w/w) curcumin. Although the dietary intake of curcumin did not affect eWAT weight or plasma lipid levels, it reduced lipid peroxidation markers' levels in eWAT. Curcumin accumulated in eWAT and changed gene expressions related to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) signalling. Curcumin suppressed eIF2α phosphorylation, which is induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, macrophage accumulation and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and leptin expression, whereas it's anti-inflammatory effect was inadequate to decrease TNF-α and IFN-γ levels. Lipidomic and gene expression analysis revealed that curcumin decreased some diacylglycerols (DAGs) and DAG-derived glycerophospholipids levels by suppressing the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 and adipose triglyceride lipase expression, which are associated with lipogenesis and lipolysis, respectively. Presumably, these intertwined effects contribute to metabolic syndrome prevention by dietary modification.
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